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组合

Rust 组合模式讲解和代码示例

组合是一种结构型设计模式 你可以使用它将对象组合成树状结构 并且能像使用独立对象一样使用它们

对于绝大多数需要生成树状结构的问题来说 组合都是非常受欢迎的解决方案 组合最主要的功能是在整个树状结构上递归调用方法并对结果进行汇总

Files and Folders

Let’s try to understand the Composite pattern with an example of an operating system’s file system. In the file system, there are two types of objects: files and folders. There are cases when files and folders should be treated to be the same way. This is where the Composite pattern comes in handy.

File and Directory are both of the trait Component with a single search method. For a file, it will just look into the contents of the file; for a folder, it will go through all files of that folder to find that keyword.

fs/mod.rs

mod file;
mod folder;

pub use file::File;
pub use folder::Folder;

pub trait Component {
    fn search(&self, keyword: &str);
}

fs/file.rs

use super::Component;

pub struct File {
    name: &'static str,
}

impl File {
    pub fn new(name: &'static str) -> Self {
        Self { name }
    }
}

impl Component for File {
    fn search(&self, keyword: &str) {
        println!("Searching for keyword {} in file {}", keyword, self.name);
    }
}

fs/folder.rs

use super::Component;

pub struct Folder {
    name: &'static str,
    components: Vec<Box<dyn Component>>,
}

impl Folder {
    pub fn new(name: &'static str) -> Self {
        Self {
            name,
            components: vec![],
        }
    }

    pub fn add(&mut self, component: impl Component + 'static) {
        self.components.push(Box::new(component));
    }
}

impl Component for Folder {
    fn search(&self, keyword: &str) {
        println!(
            "Searching recursively for keyword {} in folder {}",
            keyword, self.name
        );

        for component in self.components.iter() {
            component.search(keyword);
        }
    }
}

main.rs

mod fs;

use fs::{Component, File, Folder};

fn main() {
    let file1 = File::new("File 1");
    let file2 = File::new("File 2");
    let file3 = File::new("File 3");

    let mut folder1 = Folder::new("Folder 1");
    folder1.add(file1);

    let mut folder2 = Folder::new("Folder 2");
    folder2.add(file2);
    folder2.add(file3);
    folder2.add(folder1);

    folder2.search("rose");
}

Output

Searching recursively for keyword rose in folder Folder 2
Searching for keyword rose in file File 2
Searching for keyword rose in file File 3
Searching recursively for keyword rose in folder Folder 1
Searching for keyword rose in file File 1
------------------------------------

组合在其他编程语言中的实现

C# 组合模式讲解和代码示例 C++ 组合模式讲解和代码示例 Go 组合模式讲解和代码示例 Java 组合模式讲解和代码示例 PHP 组合模式讲解和代码示例 Python 组合模式讲解和代码示例 Ruby 组合模式讲解和代码示例 Swift 组合模式讲解和代码示例 TypeScript 组合模式讲解和代码示例