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访问者

C++ 访问者模式讲解和代码示例

访问者是一种行为设计模式 允许你在不修改已有代码的情况下向已有类层次结构中增加新的行为

阅读我们的文章访问者和双分派以了解为什么不能通过方法重载来简单地替换访问者

在 C++ 中使用模式

复杂度

流行度

使用示例 访问者不是常用的设计模式 因为它不仅复杂 应用范围也比较狭窄

概念示例

本例说明了访问者设计模式的结构并重点回答了下面的问题

  • 它由哪些类组成
  • 这些类扮演了哪些角色
  • 模式中的各个元素会以何种方式相互关联

main.cc: 概念示例

/**
 * The Visitor Interface declares a set of visiting methods that correspond to
 * component classes. The signature of a visiting method allows the visitor to
 * identify the exact class of the component that it's dealing with.
 */
class ConcreteComponentA;
class ConcreteComponentB;

class Visitor {
 public:
  virtual void VisitConcreteComponentA(const ConcreteComponentA *element) const = 0;
  virtual void VisitConcreteComponentB(const ConcreteComponentB *element) const = 0;
};

/**
 * The Component interface declares an `accept` method that should take the base
 * visitor interface as an argument.
 */

class Component {
 public:
  virtual ~Component() {}
  virtual void Accept(Visitor *visitor) const = 0;
};

/**
 * Each Concrete Component must implement the `Accept` method in such a way that
 * it calls the visitor's method corresponding to the component's class.
 */
class ConcreteComponentA : public Component {
  /**
   * Note that we're calling `visitConcreteComponentA`, which matches the
   * current class name. This way we let the visitor know the class of the
   * component it works with.
   */
 public:
  void Accept(Visitor *visitor) const override {
    visitor->VisitConcreteComponentA(this);
  }
  /**
   * Concrete Components may have special methods that don't exist in their base
   * class or interface. The Visitor is still able to use these methods since
   * it's aware of the component's concrete class.
   */
  std::string ExclusiveMethodOfConcreteComponentA() const {
    return "A";
  }
};

class ConcreteComponentB : public Component {
  /**
   * Same here: visitConcreteComponentB => ConcreteComponentB
   */
 public:
  void Accept(Visitor *visitor) const override {
    visitor->VisitConcreteComponentB(this);
  }
  std::string SpecialMethodOfConcreteComponentB() const {
    return "B";
  }
};

/**
 * Concrete Visitors implement several versions of the same algorithm, which can
 * work with all concrete component classes.
 *
 * You can experience the biggest benefit of the Visitor pattern when using it
 * with a complex object structure, such as a Composite tree. In this case, it
 * might be helpful to store some intermediate state of the algorithm while
 * executing visitor's methods over various objects of the structure.
 */
class ConcreteVisitor1 : public Visitor {
 public:
  void VisitConcreteComponentA(const ConcreteComponentA *element) const override {
    std::cout << element->ExclusiveMethodOfConcreteComponentA() << " + ConcreteVisitor1\n";
  }

  void VisitConcreteComponentB(const ConcreteComponentB *element) const override {
    std::cout << element->SpecialMethodOfConcreteComponentB() << " + ConcreteVisitor1\n";
  }
};

class ConcreteVisitor2 : public Visitor {
 public:
  void VisitConcreteComponentA(const ConcreteComponentA *element) const override {
    std::cout << element->ExclusiveMethodOfConcreteComponentA() << " + ConcreteVisitor2\n";
  }
  void VisitConcreteComponentB(const ConcreteComponentB *element) const override {
    std::cout << element->SpecialMethodOfConcreteComponentB() << " + ConcreteVisitor2\n";
  }
};
/**
 * The client code can run visitor operations over any set of elements without
 * figuring out their concrete classes. The accept operation directs a call to
 * the appropriate operation in the visitor object.
 */
void ClientCode(std::array<const Component *, 2> components, Visitor *visitor) {
  // ...
  for (const Component *comp : components) {
    comp->Accept(visitor);
  }
  // ...
}

int main() {
  std::array<const Component *, 2> components = {new ConcreteComponentA, new ConcreteComponentB};
  std::cout << "The client code works with all visitors via the base Visitor interface:\n";
  ConcreteVisitor1 *visitor1 = new ConcreteVisitor1;
  ClientCode(components, visitor1);
  std::cout << "\n";
  std::cout << "It allows the same client code to work with different types of visitors:\n";
  ConcreteVisitor2 *visitor2 = new ConcreteVisitor2;
  ClientCode(components, visitor2);

  for (const Component *comp : components) {
    delete comp;
  }
  delete visitor1;
  delete visitor2;

  return 0;
}

Output.txt: 执行结果

The client code works with all visitors via the base Visitor interface:
A + ConcreteVisitor1
B + ConcreteVisitor1

It allows the same client code to work with different types of visitors:
A + ConcreteVisitor2
B + ConcreteVisitor2

访问者在其他编程语言中的实现

Java 访问者模式讲解和代码示例 C# 访问者模式讲解和代码示例 PHP 访问者模式讲解和代码示例 Python 访问者模式讲解和代码示例 Ruby 访问者模式讲解和代码示例 Swift 访问者模式讲解和代码示例 TypeScript 访问者模式讲解和代码示例 Go 访问者模式讲解和代码示例