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迭代器

迭代器在 Java 中的实现

迭代器是一种行为设计模式 让你能在不暴露复杂数据结构内部细节的情况下遍历其中所有的元素

在迭代器的帮助下 客户端可以用一个迭代器接口以相似的方式遍历不同集合中的元素

进一步了解迭代器模式

在 Java 中使用模式

复杂度

流行度

使用示例 该模式在 Java 代码中很常见 许多框架和程序库都会使用它来提供遍历其集合的标准方式

下面是该模式在核心 Java 程序库中的一些示例

识别方法 迭代器可以通过导航方法 例如 next previous 来轻松识别 使用迭代器的客户端代码可能没有其所遍历的集合的直接访问权限

迭代访问社交网络档案

在本例中 迭代器模式被用于在不向客户端代码暴露通信细节的情况下访问远程社交网络集合中的社交媒体档案

iterators

iterators/ProfileIterator.java: 定义档案接口

package refactoring_guru.iterator.example.iterators;

import refactoring_guru.iterator.example.profile.Profile;

public interface ProfileIterator {
    boolean hasNext();

    Profile getNext();

    void reset();
}

iterators/FacebookIterator.java: 在 Facebook 档案上实现迭代

package refactoring_guru.iterator.example.iterators;

import refactoring_guru.iterator.example.profile.Profile;
import refactoring_guru.iterator.example.social_networks.Facebook;

import java.util.ArrayList;
import java.util.List;

public class FacebookIterator implements ProfileIterator {
    private Facebook facebook;
    private String type;
    private String email;
    private int currentPosition = 0;
    private List<String> emails = new ArrayList<>();
    private List<Profile> profiles = new ArrayList<>();

    public FacebookIterator(Facebook facebook, String type, String email) {
        this.facebook = facebook;
        this.type = type;
        this.email = email;
    }

    private void lazyLoad() {
        if (emails.size() == 0) {
            List<String> profiles = facebook.requestProfileFriendsFromFacebook(this.email, this.type);
            for (String profile : profiles) {
                this.emails.add(profile);
                this.profiles.add(null);
            }
        }
    }

    @Override
    public boolean hasNext() {
        lazyLoad();
        return currentPosition < emails.size();
    }

    @Override
    public Profile getNext() {
        if (!hasNext()) {
            return null;
        }

        String friendEmail = emails.get(currentPosition);
        Profile friendProfile = profiles.get(currentPosition);
        if (friendProfile == null) {
            friendProfile = facebook.requestProfileFromFacebook(friendEmail);
            profiles.set(currentPosition, friendProfile);
        }
        currentPosition++;
        return friendProfile;
    }

    @Override
    public void reset() {
        currentPosition = 0;
    }
}

iterators/LinkedInIterator.java: 在领英档案上实现迭代

package refactoring_guru.iterator.example.iterators;

import refactoring_guru.iterator.example.profile.Profile;
import refactoring_guru.iterator.example.social_networks.LinkedIn;

import java.util.ArrayList;
import java.util.List;

public class LinkedInIterator implements ProfileIterator {
    private LinkedIn linkedIn;
    private String type;
    private String email;
    private int currentPosition = 0;
    private List<String> emails = new ArrayList<>();
    private List<Profile> contacts = new ArrayList<>();

    public LinkedInIterator(LinkedIn linkedIn, String type, String email) {
        this.linkedIn = linkedIn;
        this.type = type;
        this.email = email;
    }

    private void lazyLoad() {
        if (emails.size() == 0) {
            List<String> profiles = linkedIn.requestRelatedContactsFromLinkedInAPI(this.email, this.type);
            for (String profile : profiles) {
                this.emails.add(profile);
                this.contacts.add(null);
            }
        }
    }

    @Override
    public boolean hasNext() {
        lazyLoad();
        return currentPosition < emails.size();
    }

    @Override
    public Profile getNext() {
        if (!hasNext()) {
            return null;
        }

        String friendEmail = emails.get(currentPosition);
        Profile friendContact = contacts.get(currentPosition);
        if (friendContact == null) {
            friendContact = linkedIn.requestContactInfoFromLinkedInAPI(friendEmail);
            contacts.set(currentPosition, friendContact);
        }
        currentPosition++;
        return friendContact;
    }

    @Override
    public void reset() {
        currentPosition = 0;
    }
}

social_networks

social_networks/SocialNetwork.java: 定义通用的社交网络接口

package refactoring_guru.iterator.example.social_networks;

import refactoring_guru.iterator.example.iterators.ProfileIterator;

public interface SocialNetwork {
    ProfileIterator createFriendsIterator(String profileEmail);

    ProfileIterator createCoworkersIterator(String profileEmail);
}

social_networks/Facebook.java: Facebook

package refactoring_guru.iterator.example.social_networks;

import refactoring_guru.iterator.example.iterators.FacebookIterator;
import refactoring_guru.iterator.example.iterators.ProfileIterator;
import refactoring_guru.iterator.example.profile.Profile;

import java.util.ArrayList;
import java.util.List;

public class Facebook implements SocialNetwork {
    private List<Profile> profiles;

    public Facebook(List<Profile> cache) {
        if (cache != null) {
            this.profiles = cache;
        } else {
            this.profiles = new ArrayList<>();
        }
    }

    public Profile requestProfileFromFacebook(String profileEmail) {
        // Here would be a POST request to one of the Facebook API endpoints.
        // Instead, we emulates long network connection, which you would expect
        // in the real life...
        simulateNetworkLatency();
        System.out.println("Facebook: Loading profile '" + profileEmail + "' over the network...");

        // ...and return test data.
        return findProfile(profileEmail);
    }

    public List<String> requestProfileFriendsFromFacebook(String profileEmail, String contactType) {
        // Here would be a POST request to one of the Facebook API endpoints.
        // Instead, we emulates long network connection, which you would expect
        // in the real life...
        simulateNetworkLatency();
        System.out.println("Facebook: Loading '" + contactType + "' list of '" + profileEmail + "' over the network...");

        // ...and return test data.
        Profile profile = findProfile(profileEmail);
        if (profile != null) {
            return profile.getContacts(contactType);
        }
        return null;
    }

    private Profile findProfile(String profileEmail) {
        for (Profile profile : profiles) {
            if (profile.getEmail().equals(profileEmail)) {
                return profile;
            }
        }
        return null;
    }

    private void simulateNetworkLatency() {
        try {
            Thread.sleep(2500);
        } catch (InterruptedException ex) {
            ex.printStackTrace();
        }
    }

    @Override
    public ProfileIterator createFriendsIterator(String profileEmail) {
        return new FacebookIterator(this, "friends", profileEmail);
    }

    @Override
    public ProfileIterator createCoworkersIterator(String profileEmail) {
        return new FacebookIterator(this, "coworkers", profileEmail);
    }

}

social_networks/LinkedIn.java: 领英

package refactoring_guru.iterator.example.social_networks;

import refactoring_guru.iterator.example.iterators.LinkedInIterator;
import refactoring_guru.iterator.example.iterators.ProfileIterator;
import refactoring_guru.iterator.example.profile.Profile;

import java.util.ArrayList;
import java.util.List;

public class LinkedIn implements SocialNetwork {
    private List<Profile> contacts;

    public LinkedIn(List<Profile> cache) {
        if (cache != null) {
            this.contacts = cache;
        } else {
            this.contacts = new ArrayList<>();
        }
    }

    public Profile requestContactInfoFromLinkedInAPI(String profileEmail) {
        // Here would be a POST request to one of the LinkedIn API endpoints.
        // Instead, we emulates long network connection, which you would expect
        // in the real life...
        simulateNetworkLatency();
        System.out.println("LinkedIn: Loading profile '" + profileEmail + "' over the network...");

        // ...and return test data.
        return findContact(profileEmail);
    }

    public List<String> requestRelatedContactsFromLinkedInAPI(String profileEmail, String contactType) {
        // Here would be a POST request to one of the LinkedIn API endpoints.
        // Instead, we emulates long network connection, which you would expect
        // in the real life.
        simulateNetworkLatency();
        System.out.println("LinkedIn: Loading '" + contactType + "' list of '" + profileEmail + "' over the network...");

        // ...and return test data.
        Profile profile = findContact(profileEmail);
        if (profile != null) {
            return profile.getContacts(contactType);
        }
        return null;
    }

    private Profile findContact(String profileEmail) {
        for (Profile profile : contacts) {
            if (profile.getEmail().equals(profileEmail)) {
                return profile;
            }
        }
        return null;
    }

    private void simulateNetworkLatency() {
        try {
            Thread.sleep(2500);
        } catch (InterruptedException ex) {
            ex.printStackTrace();
        }
    }

    @Override
    public ProfileIterator createFriendsIterator(String profileEmail) {
        return new LinkedInIterator(this, "friends", profileEmail);
    }

    @Override
    public ProfileIterator createCoworkersIterator(String profileEmail) {
        return new LinkedInIterator(this, "coworkers", profileEmail);
    }
}

profile

profile/Profile.java: 社交档案

package refactoring_guru.iterator.example.profile;

import java.util.ArrayList;
import java.util.HashMap;
import java.util.List;
import java.util.Map;

public class Profile {
    private String name;
    private String email;
    private Map<String, List<String>> contacts = new HashMap<>();

    public Profile(String email, String name, String... contacts) {
        this.email = email;
        this.name = name;

        // Parse contact list from a set of "friend:[email protected]" pairs.
        for (String contact : contacts) {
            String[] parts = contact.split(":");
            String contactType = "friend", contactEmail;
            if (parts.length == 1) {
                contactEmail = parts[0];
            }
            else {
                contactType = parts[0];
                contactEmail = parts[1];
            }
            if (!this.contacts.containsKey(contactType)) {
                this.contacts.put(contactType, new ArrayList<>());
            }
            this.contacts.get(contactType).add(contactEmail);
        }
    }

    public String getEmail() {
        return email;
    }

    public String getName() {
        return name;
    }

    public List<String> getContacts(String contactType) {
        if (!this.contacts.containsKey(contactType)) {
            this.contacts.put(contactType, new ArrayList<>());
        }
        return contacts.get(contactType);
    }
}

spammer

spammer/SocialSpammer.java: 消息发送应用

package refactoring_guru.iterator.example.spammer;

import refactoring_guru.iterator.example.iterators.ProfileIterator;
import refactoring_guru.iterator.example.profile.Profile;
import refactoring_guru.iterator.example.social_networks.SocialNetwork;

public class SocialSpammer {
    public SocialNetwork network;
    public ProfileIterator iterator;

    public SocialSpammer(SocialNetwork network) {
        this.network = network;
    }

    public void sendSpamToFriends(String profileEmail, String message) {
        System.out.println("\nIterating over friends...\n");
        iterator = network.createFriendsIterator(profileEmail);
        while (iterator.hasNext()) {
            Profile profile = iterator.getNext();
            sendMessage(profile.getEmail(), message);
        }
    }

    public void sendSpamToCoworkers(String profileEmail, String message) {
        System.out.println("\nIterating over coworkers...\n");
        iterator = network.createCoworkersIterator(profileEmail);
        while (iterator.hasNext()) {
            Profile profile = iterator.getNext();
            sendMessage(profile.getEmail(), message);
        }
    }

    public void sendMessage(String email, String message) {
        System.out.println("Sent message to: '" + email + "'. Message body: '" + message + "'");
    }
}

Demo.java: 客户端代码

package refactoring_guru.iterator.example;

import refactoring_guru.iterator.example.profile.Profile;
import refactoring_guru.iterator.example.social_networks.Facebook;
import refactoring_guru.iterator.example.social_networks.LinkedIn;
import refactoring_guru.iterator.example.social_networks.SocialNetwork;
import refactoring_guru.iterator.example.spammer.SocialSpammer;

import java.util.ArrayList;
import java.util.List;
import java.util.Scanner;

/**
 * Demo class. Everything comes together here.
 */
public class Demo {
    public static Scanner scanner = new Scanner(System.in);

    public static void main(String[] args) {
        System.out.println("Please specify social network to target spam tool (default:Facebook):");
        System.out.println("1. Facebook");
        System.out.println("2. LinkedIn");
        String choice = scanner.nextLine();

        SocialNetwork network;
        if (choice.equals("2")) {
            network = new LinkedIn(createTestProfiles());
        }
        else {
            network = new Facebook(createTestProfiles());
        }

        SocialSpammer spammer = new SocialSpammer(network);
        spammer.sendSpamToFriends("[email protected]",
                "Hey! This is Anna's friend Josh. Can you do me a favor and like this post [link]?");
        spammer.sendSpamToCoworkers("[email protected]",
                "Hey! This is Anna's boss Jason. Anna told me you would be interested in [link].");
    }

    public static List<Profile> createTestProfiles() {
        List<Profile> data = new ArrayList<Profile>();
        data.add(new Profile("[email protected]", "Anna Smith", "friends:[email protected]", "friends:[email protected]", "coworkers:[email protected]"));
        data.add(new Profile("[email protected]", "Maximilian", "friends:[email protected]", "coworkers:[email protected]"));
        data.add(new Profile("[email protected]", "Billie", "coworkers:[email protected]"));
        data.add(new Profile("[email protected]", "John Day", "coworkers:[email protected]"));
        data.add(new Profile("[email protected]", "Sam Kitting", "coworkers:[email protected]", "coworkers:[email protected]", "friends:[email protected]"));
        data.add(new Profile("[email protected]", "Liza", "friends:[email protected]", "friends:[email protected]"));
        return data;
    }
}

OutputDemo.txt: 执行结果

Please specify social network to target spam tool (default:Facebook):
1. Facebook
2. LinkedIn
> 1

Iterating over friends...

Facebook: Loading 'friends' list of '[email protected]' over the network...
Facebook: Loading profile '[email protected]' over the network...
Sent message to: '[email protected]'. Message body: 'Hey! This is Anna's friend Josh. Can you do me a favor and like this post [link]?'
Facebook: Loading profile '[email protected]' over the network...
Sent message to: '[email protected]'. Message body: 'Hey! This is Anna's friend Josh. Can you do me a favor and like this post [link]?'

Iterating over coworkers...

Facebook: Loading 'coworkers' list of '[email protected]' over the network...
Facebook: Loading profile '[email protected]' over the network...
Sent message to: '[email protected]'. Message body: 'Hey! This is Anna's boss Jason. Anna told me you would be interested in [link].'

迭代器在其他编程语言中的实现

迭代器在 C# 中的实现 迭代器在 PHP 中的实现 迭代器在 Python 中的实现 迭代器在 Ruby 中的实现 迭代器在 Swift 中的实现 迭代器在 TypeScript 中的实现