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迭代器

迭代器在 TypeScript 中的实现

迭代器是一种行为设计模式 让你能在不暴露复杂数据结构内部细节的情况下遍历其中所有的元素

在迭代器的帮助下 客户端可以用一个迭代器接口以相似的方式遍历不同集合中的元素

进一步了解迭代器模式

在 TypeScript 中使用模式

复杂度

流行度

使用示例 该模式在 TypeScript 代码中很常见 许多框架和程序库都使用它来提供遍历其集合的标准方式

识别方法 迭代器可以通过导航方法 例如 next previous 来轻松识别 使用迭代器的客户端代码可能没有其所遍历的集合的直接访问权限

概念示例

本例说明了迭代器设计模式的结构并重点回答了下面的问题

  • 它由哪些类组成
  • 这些类扮演了哪些角色
  • 模式中的各个元素会以何种方式相互关联

index.ts: 概念示例

/**
 * Iterator Design Pattern
 *
 * Intent: Lets you traverse elements of a collection without exposing its
 * underlying representation (list, stack, tree, etc.).
 */

interface Iterator<T> {
    // Return the current element.
    current(): any;

    // Return the current element and move forward to next element.
    next(): T;

    // Return the key of the current element.
    key(): number;

    // Checks if current position is valid.
    valid(): boolean;

    // Rewind the Iterator to the first element.
    rewind(): void;
}

interface Aggregator {
    // Retrieve an external iterator.
    getIterator(): Iterator<string>;
}

/**
 * Concrete Iterators implement various traversal algorithms. These classes
 * store the current traversal position at all times.
 */

class AlphabeticalOrderIterator implements Iterator<string> {
    private collection: WordsCollection;

    /**
     * Stores the current traversal position. An iterator may have a lot of
     * other fields for storing iteration state, especially when it is supposed
     * to work with a particular kind of collection.
     */
    private position: number = 0;

    /**
     * This variable indicates the traversal direction.
     */
    private reverse: boolean = false;

    constructor(collection: WordsCollection, reverse: boolean = false) {
        this.collection = collection;
        this.reverse = reverse;

        if (reverse) {
            this.position = collection.getCount() - 1;
        }
    }

    public rewind() {
        this.position = this.reverse ?
            this.collection.getCount() - 1 :
            0;
    }

    public current(): any {
        return this.collection.getItems()[this.position];
    }

    public key(): number {
        return this.position;
    }

    public next(): any {
        const item = this.collection.getItems()[this.position];
        this.position += this.reverse ? -1 : 1;
        return item;
    }

    public valid(): boolean {
        if (this.reverse) {
            return this.position >= 0;
        }

        return this.position < this.collection.getCount();
    }
}

/**
 * Concrete Collections provide one or several methods for retrieving fresh
 * iterator instances, compatible with the collection class.
 */
class WordsCollection implements Aggregator {
    private items: string[] = [];

    public getItems(): string[] {
        return this.items;
    }

    public getCount(): number {
        return this.items.length;
    }

    public addItem(item: string): void {
        this.items.push(item);
    }

    public getIterator(): Iterator<string> {
        return new AlphabeticalOrderIterator(this);
    }

    public getReverseIterator(): Iterator<string> {
        return new AlphabeticalOrderIterator(this, true);
    }
}

/**
 * The client code may or may not know about the Concrete Iterator or Collection
 * classes, depending on the level of indirection you want to keep in your
 * program.
 */
const collection = new WordsCollection();
collection.addItem('First');
collection.addItem('Second');
collection.addItem('Third');

const iterator = collection.getIterator();

console.log('Straight traversal:');
while (iterator.valid()) {
    console.log(iterator.next());
}

console.log('');
console.log('Reverse traversal:');
const reverseIterator = collection.getReverseIterator();
while (reverseIterator.valid()) {
    console.log(reverseIterator.next());
}

Output.txt: 执行结果

Straight traversal:
First
Second
Third

Reverse traversal:
Third
Second
First

迭代器在其他编程语言中的实现

迭代器在 Java 中的实现 迭代器在 C# 中的实现 迭代器在 PHP 中的实现 迭代器在 Python 中的实现 迭代器在 Ruby 中的实现 迭代器在 Swift 中的实现