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享元

C++ 享元模式讲解和代码示例

享元是一种结构型设计模式 它允许你在消耗少量内存的情况下支持大量对象

模式通过共享多个对象的部分状态来实现上述功能 换句话来说 享元会将不同对象的相同数据进行缓存以节省内存

在 C++ 中使用模式

复杂度

流行度

使用示例 享元模式只有一个目的 将内存消耗最小化 如果你的程序没有遇到内存容量不足的问题 则可以暂时忽略该模式

识别方法 享元可以通过构建方法来识别 它会返回缓存对象而不是创建新的对象

概念示例

本例说明了享元设计模式的结构并重点回答了下面的问题

  • 它由哪些类组成
  • 这些类扮演了哪些角色
  • 模式中的各个元素会以何种方式相互关联

main.cc: 概念示例

/**
 * Flyweight Design Pattern
 *
 * Intent: Lets you fit more objects into the available amount of RAM by sharing
 * common parts of state between multiple objects, instead of keeping all of the
 * data in each object.
 */

struct SharedState
{
    std::string brand_;
    std::string model_;
    std::string color_;

    SharedState(const std::string &brand, const std::string &model, const std::string &color)
        : brand_(brand), model_(model), color_(color)
    {
    }

    friend std::ostream &operator<<(std::ostream &os, const SharedState &ss)
    {
        return os << "[ " << ss.brand_ << " , " << ss.model_ << " , " << ss.color_ << " ]";
    }
};

struct UniqueState
{
    std::string owner_;
    std::string plates_;

    UniqueState(const std::string &owner, const std::string &plates)
        : owner_(owner), plates_(plates)
    {
    }

    friend std::ostream &operator<<(std::ostream &os, const UniqueState &us)
    {
        return os << "[ " << us.owner_ << " , " << us.plates_ << " ]";
    }
};

/**
 * The Flyweight stores a common portion of the state (also called intrinsic
 * state) that belongs to multiple real business entities. The Flyweight accepts
 * the rest of the state (extrinsic state, unique for each entity) via its
 * method parameters.
 */
class Flyweight
{
private:
    SharedState *shared_state_;

public:
    Flyweight(const SharedState *shared_state) : shared_state_(new SharedState(*shared_state))
    {
    }
    Flyweight(const Flyweight &other) : shared_state_(new SharedState(*other.shared_state_))
    {
    }
    ~Flyweight()
    {
        delete shared_state_;
    }
    SharedState *shared_state() const
    {
        return shared_state_;
    }
    void Operation(const UniqueState &unique_state) const
    {
        std::cout << "Flyweight: Displaying shared (" << *shared_state_ << ") and unique (" << unique_state << ") state.\n";
    }
};
/**
 * The Flyweight Factory creates and manages the Flyweight objects. It ensures
 * that flyweights are shared correctly. When the client requests a flyweight,
 * the factory either returns an existing instance or creates a new one, if it
 * doesn't exist yet.
 */
class FlyweightFactory
{
    /**
     * @var Flyweight[]
     */
private:
    std::unordered_map<std::string, Flyweight> flyweights_;
    /**
     * Returns a Flyweight's string hash for a given state.
     */
    std::string GetKey(const SharedState &ss) const
    {
        return ss.brand_ + "_" + ss.model_ + "_" + ss.color_;
    }

public:
    FlyweightFactory(std::initializer_list<SharedState> share_states)
    {
        for (const SharedState &ss : share_states)
        {
            this->flyweights_.insert(std::make_pair<std::string, Flyweight>(this->GetKey(ss), Flyweight(&ss)));
        }
    }

    /**
     * Returns an existing Flyweight with a given state or creates a new one.
     */
    Flyweight GetFlyweight(const SharedState &shared_state)
    {
        std::string key = this->GetKey(shared_state);
        if (this->flyweights_.find(key) == this->flyweights_.end())
        {
            std::cout << "FlyweightFactory: Can't find a flyweight, creating new one.\n";
            this->flyweights_.insert(std::make_pair(key, Flyweight(&shared_state)));
        }
        else
        {
            std::cout << "FlyweightFactory: Reusing existing flyweight.\n";
        }
        return this->flyweights_.at(key);
    }
    void ListFlyweights() const
    {
        size_t count = this->flyweights_.size();
        std::cout << "\nFlyweightFactory: I have " << count << " flyweights:\n";
        for (std::pair<std::string, Flyweight> pair : this->flyweights_)
        {
            std::cout << pair.first << "\n";
        }
    }
};

// ...
void AddCarToPoliceDatabase(
    FlyweightFactory &ff, const std::string &plates, const std::string &owner,
    const std::string &brand, const std::string &model, const std::string &color)
{
    std::cout << "\nClient: Adding a car to database.\n";
    const Flyweight &flyweight = ff.GetFlyweight({brand, model, color});
    // The client code either stores or calculates extrinsic state and passes it
    // to the flyweight's methods.
    flyweight.Operation({plates, owner});
}

/**
 * The client code usually creates a bunch of pre-populated flyweights in the
 * initialization stage of the application.
 */

int main()
{
    FlyweightFactory *factory = new FlyweightFactory({{"Chevrolet", "Camaro2018", "pink"}, {"Mercedes Benz", "C300", "black"}, {"Mercedes Benz", "C500", "red"}, {"BMW", "M5", "red"}, {"BMW", "X6", "white"}});
    factory->ListFlyweights();

    AddCarToPoliceDatabase(*factory,
                            "CL234IR",
                            "James Doe",
                            "BMW",
                            "M5",
                            "red");

    AddCarToPoliceDatabase(*factory,
                            "CL234IR",
                            "James Doe",
                            "BMW",
                            "X1",
                            "red");
    factory->ListFlyweights();
    delete factory;

    return 0;
}

Output.txt: 执行结果

FlyweightFactory: I have 5 flyweights:
BMW_X6_white
Mercedes Benz_C500_red
Mercedes Benz_C300_black
BMW_M5_red
Chevrolet_Camaro2018_pink

Client: Adding a car to database.
FlyweightFactory: Reusing existing flyweight.
Flyweight: Displaying shared ([ BMW , M5 , red ]) and unique ([ CL234IR , James Doe ]) state.

Client: Adding a car to database.
FlyweightFactory: Can't find a flyweight, creating new one.
Flyweight: Displaying shared ([ BMW , X1 , red ]) and unique ([ CL234IR , James Doe ]) state.

FlyweightFactory: I have 6 flyweights:
BMW_X1_red
Mercedes Benz_C300_black
BMW_X6_white
Mercedes Benz_C500_red
BMW_M5_red
Chevrolet_Camaro2018_pink

享元在其他编程语言中的实现

Java 享元模式讲解和代码示例 C# 享元模式讲解和代码示例 PHP 享元模式讲解和代码示例 Python 享元模式讲解和代码示例 Ruby 享元模式讲解和代码示例 Swift 享元模式讲解和代码示例 TypeScript 享元模式讲解和代码示例