🇨🇳🐲🎉 本网站的中文版本尚处早期开发阶段。如果您发现其中存在错字、纰漏或其他任何问题,请随时联系 [email protected] 向我反馈。
观察者

观察者在 C# 中的实现

观察者是一种行为设计模式 允许一个对象将其状态的改变通知其他对象

观察者模式提供了一种作用于任何实现了订阅者接口的对象的机制 可对其事件进行订阅和取消订阅

进一步了解观察者模式

在 C# 中使用模式

复杂度

流行度

使用示例 观察者模式在 C# 代码中很常见 特别是在 GUI 组件中 它提供了在不与其他对象所属类耦合的情况下对其事件做出反应的方式

识别方式 该模式可以通过将对象存储在列表中的订阅方法 和对于面向该列表中对象的更新方法的调用来识别

概念示例

本例说明了观察者设计模式的结构并重点回答了下面的问题

  • 它由哪些类组成
  • 这些类扮演了哪些角色
  • 模式中的各个元素会以何种方式相互关联

Program.cs: 概念示例

using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.Threading;

namespace RefactoringGuru.DesignPatterns.Observer.Conceptual
{
    public interface IObserver
    {
        // Receive update from subject
        void Update(ISubject subject);
    }

    public interface ISubject
    {
        // Attach an observer to the subject.
        void Attach(IObserver observer);

        // Detach an observer from the subject.
        void Detach(IObserver observer);

        // Notify all observers about an event.
        void Notify();
    }

    // The Subject owns some important state and notifies observers when the
    // state changes.
    public class Subject : ISubject
    {
        // For the sake of simplicity, the Subject's state, essential to all
        // subscribers, is stored in this variable.
        public int State { get; set; } = -0;

        // List of subscribers. In real life, the list of subscribers can be
        // stored more comprehensively (categorized by event type, etc.).
        private List<IObserver> _observers = new List<IObserver>();

        // The subscription management methods.
        public void Attach(IObserver observer)
        {
            Console.WriteLine("Subject: Attached an observer.");
            this._observers.Add(observer);
        }

        public void Detach(IObserver observer)
        {
            this._observers.Remove(observer);
            Console.WriteLine("Subject: Detached an observer.");
        }

        // Trigger an update in each subscriber.
        public void Notify()
        {
            Console.WriteLine("Subject: Notifying observers...");

            foreach (var observer in _observers)
            {
                observer.Update(this);
            }
        }

        // Usually, the subscription logic is only a fraction of what a Subject
        // can really do. Subjects commonly hold some important business logic,
        // that triggers a notification method whenever something important is
        // about to happen (or after it).
        public void SomeBusinessLogic()
        {
            Console.WriteLine("\nSubject: I'm doing something important.");
            this.State = new Random().Next(0, 10);

            Thread.Sleep(15);

            Console.WriteLine("Subject: My state has just changed to: " + this.State);
            this.Notify();
        }
    }

    // Concrete Observers react to the updates issued by the Subject they had
    // been attached to.
    class ConcreteObserverA : IObserver
    {
        public void Update(ISubject subject)
        {            
            if ((subject as Subject).State < 3)
            {
                Console.WriteLine("ConcreteObserverA: Reacted to the event.");
            }
        }
    }

    class ConcreteObserverB : IObserver
    {
        public void Update(ISubject subject)
        {
            if ((subject as Subject).State == 0 || (subject as Subject).State >= 2)
            {
                Console.WriteLine("ConcreteObserverB: Reacted to the event.");
            }
        }
    }
    
    class Program
    {
        static void Main(string[] args)
        {
            // The client code.
            var subject = new Subject();
            var observerA = new ConcreteObserverA();
            subject.Attach(observerA);

            var observerB = new ConcreteObserverB();
            subject.Attach(observerB);

            subject.SomeBusinessLogic();
            subject.SomeBusinessLogic();

            subject.Detach(observerB);

            subject.SomeBusinessLogic();
        }
    }
}

Output.txt: 执行结果

Subject: Attached an observer.
Subject: Attached an observer.

Subject: I'm doing something important.
Subject: My state has just changed to: 2
Subject: Notifying observers...
ConcreteObserverA: Reacted to the event.
ConcreteObserverB: Reacted to the event.

Subject: I'm doing something important.
Subject: My state has just changed to: 1
Subject: Notifying observers...
ConcreteObserverA: Reacted to the event.
Subject: Detached an observer.

Subject: I'm doing something important.
Subject: My state has just changed to: 5
Subject: Notifying observers...

观察者在其他编程语言中的实现

观察者在 Java 中的实现 观察者在 PHP 中的实现 观察者在 Python 中的实现 观察者在 Ruby 中的实现 观察者在 Swift 中的实现 观察者在 TypeScript 中的实现