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备忘录

备忘录在 Java 中的实现

备忘录是一种行为设计模式 允许生成对象状态的快照并在以后将其还原

备忘录不会影响它所处理的对象的内部结构 也不会影响快照中保存的数据

进一步了解备忘录模式

在 Java 中使用模式

复杂度

流行度

使用示例 备忘录的基本原则可通过序列化来实现 这在 Java 语言中很常见 尽管备忘录不是生成对象状态快照的唯一或最有效方法 但它能在保护原始对象的结构不暴露给其他对象的情况下保存对象状态的备份

下面是核心 Java 程序库中该模式的一些示例

形状编辑器和复杂的撤销/恢复功能

该图像编辑器允许修改屏幕上形状的颜色和位置 但任何修改都可被撤销和重复

撤销 功能基于备忘录和命令模式的合作 编辑器记录命令的执行历史 在执行任何命令之前 它都会生成备份并将其连接到一个命令对象 而在执行完成后 它会将已执行的命令放入历史记录中

当用户请求撤销操作时 编辑器将从历史记录中获取最近的命令 恢复在该命令内部保存的状态备份 如果用户再次请求撤销操作 编辑器将恢复历史记录中的下一个命令 以此类推

被撤销的命令都将保存在历史记录中 直至用户对屏幕上的形状进行了修改 这对恢复被撤销的命令来说至关重要

editor

editor/Editor.java: 编辑器代码

package refactoring_guru.memento.example.editor;

import refactoring_guru.memento.example.commands.Command;
import refactoring_guru.memento.example.history.History;
import refactoring_guru.memento.example.history.Memento;
import refactoring_guru.memento.example.shapes.CompoundShape;
import refactoring_guru.memento.example.shapes.Shape;

import javax.swing.*;
import java.io.*;
import java.util.Base64;

public class Editor extends JComponent {
    private Canvas canvas;
    private CompoundShape allShapes = new CompoundShape();
    private History history;

    public Editor() {
        canvas = new Canvas(this);
        history = new History();
    }

    public void loadShapes(Shape... shapes) {
        allShapes.clear();
        allShapes.add(shapes);
        canvas.refresh();
    }

    public CompoundShape getShapes() {
        return allShapes;
    }

    public void execute(Command c) {
        history.push(c, new Memento(this));
        c.execute();
    }

    public void undo() {
        if (history.undo())
            canvas.repaint();
    }

    public void redo() {
        if (history.redo())
            canvas.repaint();
    }

    public String backup() {
        try {
            ByteArrayOutputStream baos = new ByteArrayOutputStream();
            ObjectOutputStream oos = new ObjectOutputStream(baos);
            oos.writeObject(this.allShapes);
            oos.close();
            return Base64.getEncoder().encodeToString(baos.toByteArray());
        } catch (IOException e) {
            return "";
        }
    }

    public void restore(String state) {
        try {
            byte[] data = Base64.getDecoder().decode(state);
            ObjectInputStream ois = new ObjectInputStream(new ByteArrayInputStream(data));
            this.allShapes = (CompoundShape) ois.readObject();
            ois.close();
        } catch (ClassNotFoundException e) {
            System.out.print("ClassNotFoundException occurred.");
        } catch (IOException e) {
            System.out.print("IOException occurred.");
        }
    }
}

editor/Canvas.java: 画布代码

package refactoring_guru.memento.example.editor;

import refactoring_guru.memento.example.commands.ColorCommand;
import refactoring_guru.memento.example.commands.MoveCommand;
import refactoring_guru.memento.example.shapes.Shape;

import javax.swing.*;
import javax.swing.border.Border;
import java.awt.*;
import java.awt.event.*;
import java.awt.image.BufferedImage;

class Canvas extends java.awt.Canvas {
    private Editor editor;
    private JFrame frame;
    private static final int PADDING = 10;

    Canvas(Editor editor) {
        this.editor = editor;
        createFrame();
        attachKeyboardListeners();
        attachMouseListeners();
        refresh();
    }

    private void createFrame() {
        frame = new JFrame();
        frame.setDefaultCloseOperation(WindowConstants.EXIT_ON_CLOSE);
        frame.setLocationRelativeTo(null);

        JPanel contentPanel = new JPanel();
        Border padding = BorderFactory.createEmptyBorder(PADDING, PADDING, PADDING, PADDING);
        contentPanel.setBorder(padding);
        contentPanel.setLayout(new BoxLayout(contentPanel, BoxLayout.Y_AXIS));
        frame.setContentPane(contentPanel);

        contentPanel.add(new JLabel("Select and drag to move."), BorderLayout.PAGE_END);
        contentPanel.add(new JLabel("Right click to change color."), BorderLayout.PAGE_END);
        contentPanel.add(new JLabel("Undo: Ctrl+Z, Redo: Ctrl+R"), BorderLayout.PAGE_END);
        contentPanel.add(this);
        frame.setVisible(true);
        contentPanel.setBackground(Color.LIGHT_GRAY);
    }

    private void attachKeyboardListeners() {
        addKeyListener(new KeyAdapter() {
            @Override
            public void keyPressed(KeyEvent e) {
                if ((e.getModifiers() & KeyEvent.CTRL_MASK) != 0) {
                    switch (e.getKeyCode()) {
                        case KeyEvent.VK_Z:
                            editor.undo();
                            break;
                        case KeyEvent.VK_R:
                            editor.redo();
                            break;
                    }
                }
            }
        });
    }

    private void attachMouseListeners() {
        MouseAdapter colorizer = new MouseAdapter() {
            @Override
            public void mousePressed(MouseEvent e) {
                if (e.getButton() != MouseEvent.BUTTON3) {
                    return;
                }
                Shape target = editor.getShapes().getChildAt(e.getX(), e.getY());
                if (target != null) {
                    editor.execute(new ColorCommand(editor, new Color((int) (Math.random() * 0x1000000))));
                    repaint();
                }
            }
        };
        addMouseListener(colorizer);

        MouseAdapter selector = new MouseAdapter() {
            @Override
            public void mousePressed(MouseEvent e) {
                if (e.getButton() != MouseEvent.BUTTON1) {
                    return;
                }

                Shape target = editor.getShapes().getChildAt(e.getX(), e.getY());
                boolean ctrl = (e.getModifiers() & ActionEvent.CTRL_MASK) == ActionEvent.CTRL_MASK;

                if (target == null) {
                    if (!ctrl) {
                        editor.getShapes().unSelect();
                    }
                } else {
                    if (ctrl) {
                        if (target.isSelected()) {
                            target.unSelect();
                        } else {
                            target.select();
                        }
                    } else {
                        if (!target.isSelected()) {
                            editor.getShapes().unSelect();
                        }
                        target.select();
                    }
                }
                repaint();
            }
        };
        addMouseListener(selector);


        MouseAdapter dragger = new MouseAdapter() {
            MoveCommand moveCommand;

            @Override
            public void mouseDragged(MouseEvent e) {
                if ((e.getModifiersEx() & MouseEvent.BUTTON1_DOWN_MASK) != MouseEvent.BUTTON1_DOWN_MASK) {
                    return;
                }
                if (moveCommand == null) {
                    moveCommand = new MoveCommand(editor);
                    moveCommand.start(e.getX(), e.getY());
                }
                moveCommand.move(e.getX(), e.getY());
                repaint();
            }

            @Override
            public void mouseReleased(MouseEvent e) {
                if (e.getButton() != MouseEvent.BUTTON1 || moveCommand == null) {
                    return;
                }
                moveCommand.stop(e.getX(), e.getY());
                editor.execute(moveCommand);
                this.moveCommand = null;
                repaint();
            }
        };
        addMouseListener(dragger);
        addMouseMotionListener(dragger);
    }

    public int getWidth() {
        return editor.getShapes().getX() + editor.getShapes().getWidth() + PADDING;
    }

    public int getHeight() {
        return editor.getShapes().getY() + editor.getShapes().getHeight() + PADDING;
    }

    void refresh() {
        this.setSize(getWidth(), getHeight());
        frame.pack();
    }

    public void update(Graphics g) {
        paint(g);
    }

    public void paint(Graphics graphics) {
        BufferedImage buffer = new BufferedImage(this.getWidth(), this.getHeight(), BufferedImage.TYPE_INT_RGB);
        Graphics2D ig2 = buffer.createGraphics();
        ig2.setBackground(Color.WHITE);
        ig2.clearRect(0, 0, this.getWidth(), this.getHeight());

        editor.getShapes().paint(buffer.getGraphics());

        graphics.drawImage(buffer, 0, 0, null);
    }
}

history

history/History.java: 保存命令和备忘录的历史记录

package refactoring_guru.memento.example.history;

import refactoring_guru.memento.example.commands.Command;

import java.util.ArrayList;
import java.util.List;

public class History {
    private List<Pair> history = new ArrayList<Pair>();
    private int virtualSize = 0;

    private class Pair {
        Command command;
        Memento memento;
        Pair(Command c, Memento m) {
            command = c;
            memento = m;
        }

        private Command getCommand() {
            return command;
        }

        private Memento getMemento() {
            return memento;
        }
    }

    public void push(Command c, Memento m) {
        if (virtualSize != history.size() && virtualSize > 0) {
            history = history.subList(0, virtualSize - 1);
        }
        history.add(new Pair(c, m));
        virtualSize = history.size();
    }

    public boolean undo() {
        Pair pair = getUndo();
        if (pair == null) {
            return false;
        }
        System.out.println("Undoing: " + pair.getCommand().getName());
        pair.getMemento().restore();
        return true;
    }

    public boolean redo() {
        Pair pair = getRedo();
        if (pair == null) {
            return false;
        }
        System.out.println("Redoing: " + pair.getCommand().getName());
        pair.getMemento().restore();
        pair.getCommand().execute();
        return true;
    }

    private Pair getUndo() {
        if (virtualSize == 0) {
            return null;
        }
        virtualSize = Math.max(0, virtualSize - 1);
        return history.get(virtualSize);
    }

    private Pair getRedo() {
        if (virtualSize == history.size()) {
            return null;
        }
        virtualSize = Math.min(history.size(), virtualSize + 1);
        return history.get(virtualSize - 1);
    }
}

history/Memento.java: 备忘录类

package refactoring_guru.memento.example.history;

import refactoring_guru.memento.example.editor.Editor;

public class Memento {
    private String backup;
    private Editor editor;

    public Memento(Editor editor) {
        this.editor = editor;
        this.backup = editor.backup();
    }

    public void restore() {
        editor.restore(backup);
    }
}

commands

commands/Command.java: 基础命令类

package refactoring_guru.memento.example.commands;

public interface Command {
    String getName();
    void execute();
}

commands/ColorCommand.java: 修改已选形状的颜色

package refactoring_guru.memento.example.commands;

import refactoring_guru.memento.example.editor.Editor;
import refactoring_guru.memento.example.shapes.Shape;

import java.awt.*;

public class ColorCommand implements Command {
    private Editor editor;
    private Color color;

    public ColorCommand(Editor editor, Color color) {
        this.editor = editor;
        this.color = color;
    }

    @Override
    public String getName() {
        return "Colorize: " + color.toString();
    }

    @Override
    public void execute() {
        for (Shape child : editor.getShapes().getSelected()) {
            child.setColor(color);
        }
    }
}

commands/MoveCommand.java: 移动已选形状

package refactoring_guru.memento.example.commands;

import refactoring_guru.memento.example.editor.Editor;
import refactoring_guru.memento.example.shapes.Shape;

public class MoveCommand implements Command {
    private Editor editor;
    private int startX, startY;
    private int endX, endY;

    public MoveCommand(Editor editor) {
        this.editor = editor;
    }

    @Override
    public String getName() {
        return "Move by X:" + (endX - startX) + " Y:" + (endY - startY);
    }

    public void start(int x, int y) {
        startX = x;
        startY = y;
        for (Shape child : editor.getShapes().getSelected()) {
            child.drag();
        }
    }

    public void move(int x, int y) {
        for (Shape child : editor.getShapes().getSelected()) {
            child.moveTo(x - startX, y - startY);
        }
    }

    public void stop(int x, int y) {
        endX = x;
        endY = y;
        for (Shape child : editor.getShapes().getSelected()) {
            child.drop();
        }
    }

    @Override
    public void execute() {
        for (Shape child : editor.getShapes().getSelected()) {
            child.moveBy(endX - startX, endY - startY);
        }
    }
}

shapes: 各种形状

shapes/Shape.java

package refactoring_guru.memento.example.shapes;

import java.awt.*;
import java.io.Serializable;

public interface Shape extends Serializable {
    int getX();
    int getY();
    int getWidth();
    int getHeight();
    void drag();
    void drop();
    void moveTo(int x, int y);
    void moveBy(int x, int y);
    boolean isInsideBounds(int x, int y);
    Color getColor();
    void setColor(Color color);
    void select();
    void unSelect();
    boolean isSelected();
    void paint(Graphics graphics);
}

shapes/BaseShape.java

package refactoring_guru.memento.example.shapes;

import java.awt.*;

public abstract class BaseShape implements Shape {
    int x, y;
    private int dx = 0, dy = 0;
    private Color color;
    private boolean selected = false;

    BaseShape(int x, int y, Color color) {
        this.x = x;
        this.y = y;
        this.color = color;
    }

    @Override
    public int getX() {
        return x;
    }

    @Override
    public int getY() {
        return y;
    }

    @Override
    public int getWidth() {
        return 0;
    }

    @Override
    public int getHeight() {
        return 0;
    }

    @Override
    public void drag() {
        dx = x;
        dy = y;
    }

    @Override
    public void moveTo(int x, int y) {
        this.x = dx + x;
        this.y = dy + y;
    }

    @Override
    public void moveBy(int x, int y) {
        this.x += x;
        this.y += y;
    }

    @Override
    public void drop() {
        this.x = dx;
        this.y = dy;
    }

    @Override
    public boolean isInsideBounds(int x, int y) {
        return x > getX() && x < (getX() + getWidth()) &&
                y > getY() && y < (getY() + getHeight());
    }

    @Override
    public Color getColor() {
        return color;
    }

    @Override
    public void setColor(Color color) {
        this.color = color;
    }

    @Override
    public void select() {
        selected = true;
    }

    @Override
    public void unSelect() {
        selected = false;
    }

    @Override
    public boolean isSelected() {
        return selected;
    }

    void enableSelectionStyle(Graphics graphics) {
        graphics.setColor(Color.LIGHT_GRAY);

        Graphics2D g2 = (Graphics2D) graphics;
        float dash1[] = {2.0f};
        g2.setStroke(new BasicStroke(1.0f,
                BasicStroke.CAP_BUTT,
                BasicStroke.JOIN_MITER,
                2.0f, dash1, 0.0f));
    }

    void disableSelectionStyle(Graphics graphics) {
        graphics.setColor(color);
        Graphics2D g2 = (Graphics2D) graphics;
        g2.setStroke(new BasicStroke());
    }

    @Override
    public void paint(Graphics graphics) {
        if (isSelected()) {
            enableSelectionStyle(graphics);
        }
        else {
            disableSelectionStyle(graphics);
        }

        // ...
    }
}

shapes/Circle.java

package refactoring_guru.memento.example.shapes;

import java.awt.*;

public class Circle extends BaseShape {
    private int radius;

    public Circle(int x, int y, int radius, Color color) {
        super(x, y, color);
        this.radius = radius;
    }

    @Override
    public int getWidth() {
        return radius * 2;
    }

    @Override
    public int getHeight() {
        return radius * 2;
    }

    @Override
    public void paint(Graphics graphics) {
        super.paint(graphics);
        graphics.drawOval(x, y, getWidth() - 1, getHeight() - 1);
    }
}

shapes/Dot.java

package refactoring_guru.memento.example.shapes;

import java.awt.*;

public class Dot extends BaseShape {
    private final int DOT_SIZE = 3;

    public Dot(int x, int y, Color color) {
        super(x, y, color);
    }

    @Override
    public int getWidth() {
        return DOT_SIZE;
    }

    @Override
    public int getHeight() {
        return DOT_SIZE;
    }

    @Override
    public void paint(Graphics graphics) {
        super.paint(graphics);
        graphics.fillRect(x - 1, y - 1, getWidth(), getHeight());
    }
}

shapes/Rectangle.java

package refactoring_guru.memento.example.shapes;

import java.awt.*;

public class Rectangle extends BaseShape {
    private int width;
    private int height;

    public Rectangle(int x, int y, int width, int height, Color color) {
        super(x, y, color);
        this.width = width;
        this.height = height;
    }

    @Override
    public int getWidth() {
        return width;
    }

    @Override
    public int getHeight() {
        return height;
    }

    @Override
    public void paint(Graphics graphics) {
        super.paint(graphics);
        graphics.drawRect(x, y, getWidth() - 1, getHeight() - 1);
    }
}

shapes/CompoundShape.java

package refactoring_guru.memento.example.shapes;

import java.awt.*;
import java.util.ArrayList;
import java.util.Arrays;
import java.util.List;

public class CompoundShape extends BaseShape {
    private List<Shape> children = new ArrayList<>();

    public CompoundShape(Shape... components) {
        super(0, 0, Color.BLACK);
        add(components);
    }

    public void add(Shape component) {
        children.add(component);
    }

    public void add(Shape... components) {
        children.addAll(Arrays.asList(components));
    }

    public void remove(Shape child) {
        children.remove(child);
    }

    public void remove(Shape... components) {
        children.removeAll(Arrays.asList(components));
    }

    public void clear() {
        children.clear();
    }

    @Override
    public int getX() {
        if (children.size() == 0) {
            return 0;
        }
        int x = children.get(0).getX();
        for (Shape child : children) {
            if (child.getX() < x) {
                x = child.getX();
            }
        }
        return x;
    }

    @Override
    public int getY() {
        if (children.size() == 0) {
            return 0;
        }
        int y = children.get(0).getY();
        for (Shape child : children) {
            if (child.getY() < y) {
                y = child.getY();
            }
        }
        return y;
    }

    @Override
    public int getWidth() {
        int maxWidth = 0;
        int x = getX();
        for (Shape child : children) {
            int childsRelativeX = child.getX() - x;
            int childWidth = childsRelativeX + child.getWidth();
            if (childWidth > maxWidth) {
                maxWidth = childWidth;
            }
        }
        return maxWidth;
    }

    @Override
    public int getHeight() {
        int maxHeight = 0;
        int y = getY();
        for (Shape child : children) {
            int childsRelativeY = child.getY() - y;
            int childHeight = childsRelativeY + child.getHeight();
            if (childHeight > maxHeight) {
                maxHeight = childHeight;
            }
        }
        return maxHeight;
    }

    @Override
    public void drag() {
        for (Shape child : children) {
            child.drag();
        }
    }

    @Override
    public void drop() {
        for (Shape child : children) {
            child.drop();
        }
    }

    @Override
    public void moveTo(int x, int y) {
        for (Shape child : children) {
            child.moveTo(x, y);
        }
    }

    @Override
    public void moveBy(int x, int y) {
        for (Shape child : children) {
            child.moveBy(x, y);
        }
    }

    @Override
    public boolean isInsideBounds(int x, int y) {
        for (Shape child : children) {
            if (child.isInsideBounds(x, y)) {
                return true;
            }
        }
        return false;
    }

    @Override
    public void setColor(Color color) {
        super.setColor(color);
        for (Shape child : children) {
            child.setColor(color);
        }
    }

    @Override
    public void unSelect() {
        super.unSelect();
        for (Shape child : children) {
            child.unSelect();
        }
    }

    public Shape getChildAt(int x, int y) {
        for (Shape child : children) {
            if (child.isInsideBounds(x, y)) {
                return child;
            }
        }
        return null;
    }

    public boolean selectChildAt(int x, int y) {
        Shape child = getChildAt(x,y);
        if (child != null) {
            child.select();
            return true;
        }
        return false;
    }

    public List<Shape> getSelected() {
        List<Shape> selected = new ArrayList<>();
        for (Shape child : children) {
            if (child.isSelected()) {
                selected.add(child);
            }
        }
        return selected;
    }

    @Override
    public void paint(Graphics graphics) {
        if (isSelected()) {
            enableSelectionStyle(graphics);
            graphics.drawRect(getX() - 1, getY() - 1, getWidth() + 1, getHeight() + 1);
            disableSelectionStyle(graphics);
        }

        for (Shape child : children) {
            child.paint(graphics);
        }
    }
}

Demo.java: 初始化代码

package refactoring_guru.memento.example;

import refactoring_guru.memento.example.editor.Editor;
import refactoring_guru.memento.example.shapes.Circle;
import refactoring_guru.memento.example.shapes.CompoundShape;
import refactoring_guru.memento.example.shapes.Dot;
import refactoring_guru.memento.example.shapes.Rectangle;

import java.awt.*;

public class Demo {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        Editor editor = new Editor();
        editor.loadShapes(
                new Circle(10, 10, 10, Color.BLUE),

                new CompoundShape(
                        new Circle(110, 110, 50, Color.RED),
                        new Dot(160, 160, Color.RED)
                ),

                new CompoundShape(
                        new Rectangle(250, 250, 100, 100, Color.GREEN),
                        new Dot(240, 240, Color.GREEN),
                        new Dot(240, 360, Color.GREEN),
                        new Dot(360, 360, Color.GREEN),
                        new Dot(360, 240, Color.GREEN)
                )
        );
    }
}

OutputDemo.png: 屏幕截图

备忘录在其他编程语言中的实现

备忘录在 C# 中的实现 备忘录在 PHP 中的实现 备忘录在 Python 中的实现 备忘录在 Ruby 中的实现 备忘录在 Swift 中的实现 备忘录在 TypeScript 中的实现