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备忘录

备忘录在 TypeScript 中的实现

备忘录是一种行为设计模式 允许生成对象状态的快照并在以后将其还原

备忘录不会影响它所处理的对象的内部结构 也不会影响快照中保存的数据

进一步了解备忘录模式

在 TypeScript 中使用模式

复杂度

流行度

使用示例 备忘录的基本功能可用序列化来实现 这在 TypeScript 语言中很常见 尽管备忘录不是生成对象状态快照的唯一或最有效的方法 但它能在保护原始对象的结构不暴露给其他对象的情况下保存对象状态的备份

概念示例

本例说明了备忘录设计模式的结构并重点回答了下面的问题

  • 它由哪些类组成
  • 这些类扮演了哪些角色
  • 模式中的各个元素会以何种方式相互关联

index.ts: 概念示例

/**
 * The Originator holds some important state that may change over time. It also
 * defines a method for saving the state inside a memento and another method for
 * restoring the state from it.
 */
class Originator {
    /**
     * For the sake of simplicity, the originator's state is stored inside a
     * single variable.
     */
    private state: string;

    constructor(state: string) {
        this.state = state;
        console.log(`Originator: My initial state is: ${state}`);
    }

    /**
     * The Originator's business logic may affect its internal state. Therefore,
     * the client should backup the state before launching methods of the
     * business logic via the save() method.
     */
    public doSomething(): void {
        console.log('Originator: I\'m doing something important.');
        this.state = this.generateRandomString(30);
        console.log(`Originator: and my state has changed to: ${this.state}`);
    }

    private generateRandomString(length: number = 10): string {
        const charSet = 'abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyzABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ';

        return Array
            .apply(null, { length })
            .map(() => charSet.charAt(Math.floor(Math.random() * charSet.length)))
            .join('');
    }

    /**
     * Saves the current state inside a memento.
     */
    public save(): Memento {
        return new ConcreteMemento(this.state);
    }

    /**
     * Restores the Originator's state from a memento object.
     */
    public restore(memento: Memento): void {
        this.state = memento.getState();
        console.log(`Originator: My state has changed to: ${this.state}`);
    }
}

/**
 * The Memento interface provides a way to retrieve the memento's metadata, such
 * as creation date or name. However, it doesn't expose the Originator's state.
 */
interface Memento {
    getState(): string;

    getName(): string;

    getDate(): string;
}

/**
 * The Concrete Memento contains the infrastructure for storing the Originator's
 * state.
 */
class ConcreteMemento implements Memento {
    private state: string;

    private date: string;

    constructor(state: string) {
        this.state = state;
        this.date = new Date().toISOString().slice(0, 19).replace('T', ' ');
    }

    /**
     * The Originator uses this method when restoring its state.
     */
    public getState(): string {
        return this.state;
    }

    /**
     * The rest of the methods are used by the Caretaker to display metadata.
     */
    public getName(): string {
        return `${this.date} / (${this.state.substr(0, 9)}...)`;
    }

    public getDate(): string {
        return this.date;
    }
}

/**
 * The Caretaker doesn't depend on the Concrete Memento class. Therefore, it
 * doesn't have access to the originator's state, stored inside the memento. It
 * works with all mementos via the base Memento interface.
 */
class Caretaker {
    private mementos: Memento[] = [];

    private originator: Originator;

    constructor(originator: Originator) {
        this.originator = originator;
    }

    public backup(): void {
        console.log('\nCaretaker: Saving Originator\'s state...');
        this.mementos.push(this.originator.save());
    }

    public undo(): void {
        if (!this.mementos.length) {
            return;
        }
        const memento = this.mementos.pop();

        console.log(`Caretaker: Restoring state to: ${memento.getName()}`);
        this.originator.restore(memento);
    }

    public showHistory(): void {
        console.log('Caretaker: Here\'s the list of mementos:');
        for (const memento of this.mementos) {
            console.log(memento.getName());
        }
    }
}

/**
 * Client code.
 */
const originator = new Originator('Super-duper-super-puper-super.');
const caretaker = new Caretaker(originator);

caretaker.backup();
originator.doSomething();

caretaker.backup();
originator.doSomething();

caretaker.backup();
originator.doSomething();

console.log('');
caretaker.showHistory();

console.log('\nClient: Now, let\'s rollback!\n');
caretaker.undo();

console.log('\nClient: Once more!\n');
caretaker.undo();

Output.txt: 执行结果

Originator: My initial state is: Super-duper-super-puper-super.

Caretaker: Saving Originator's state...
Originator: I'm doing something important.
Originator: and my state has changed to: qXqxgTcLSCeLYdcgElOghOFhPGfMxo

Caretaker: Saving Originator's state...
Originator: I'm doing something important.
Originator: and my state has changed to: iaVCJVryJwWwbipieensfodeMSWvUY

Caretaker: Saving Originator's state...
Originator: I'm doing something important.
Originator: and my state has changed to: oSUxsOCiZEnohBMQEjwnPWJLGnwGmy

Caretaker: Here's the list of mementos:
2019-02-17 15:14:05 / (Super-dup...)
2019-02-17 15:14:05 / (qXqxgTcLS...)
2019-02-17 15:14:05 / (iaVCJVryJ...)

Client: Now, let's rollback!

Caretaker: Restoring state to: 2019-02-17 15:14:05 / (iaVCJVryJ...)
Originator: My state has changed to: iaVCJVryJwWwbipieensfodeMSWvUY

Client: Once more!

Caretaker: Restoring state to: 2019-02-17 15:14:05 / (qXqxgTcLS...)
Originator: My state has changed to: qXqxgTcLSCeLYdcgElOghOFhPGfMxo

备忘录在其他编程语言中的实现

备忘录 在 Java 中的实现 备忘录 在 C# 中的实现 备忘录 在 PHP 中的实现 备忘录 在 Python 中的实现 备忘录 在 Ruby 中的实现 备忘录 在 Swift 中的实现