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状态

C++ 状态模式讲解和代码示例

状态是一种行为设计模式 让你能在一个对象的内部状态变化时改变其行为

该模式将与状态相关的行为抽取到独立的状态类中 让原对象将工作委派给这些类的实例 而不是自行进行处理

在 C++ 中使用模式

复杂度

流行度

使用示例 在 C++ 语言中 状态模式通常被用于将基于 switch语句的大型状态机转换为对象

识别方法 状态模式可通过受外部控制且能根据对象状态改变行为的方法来识别

概念示例

本例说明了状态设计模式的结构并重点回答了下面的问题

  • 它由哪些类组成
  • 这些类扮演了哪些角色
  • 模式中的各个元素会以何种方式相互关联

main.cc: 概念示例

#include <iostream>
#include <typeinfo>
/**
 * The base State class declares methods that all Concrete State should
 * implement and also provides a backreference to the Context object, associated
 * with the State. This backreference can be used by States to transition the
 * Context to another State.
 */

class Context;

class State {
  /**
   * @var Context
   */
 protected:
  Context *context_;

 public:
  virtual ~State() {
  }

  void set_context(Context *context) {
    this->context_ = context;
  }

  virtual void Handle1() = 0;
  virtual void Handle2() = 0;
};

/**
 * The Context defines the interface of interest to clients. It also maintains a
 * reference to an instance of a State subclass, which represents the current
 * state of the Context.
 */
class Context {
  /**
   * @var State A reference to the current state of the Context.
   */
 private:
  State *state_;

 public:
  Context(State *state) : state_(nullptr) {
    this->TransitionTo(state);
  }
  ~Context() {
    delete state_;
  }
  /**
   * The Context allows changing the State object at runtime.
   */
  void TransitionTo(State *state) {
    std::cout << "Context: Transition to " << typeid(*state).name() << ".\n";
    if (this->state_ != nullptr)
      delete this->state_;
    this->state_ = state;
    this->state_->set_context(this);
  }
  /**
   * The Context delegates part of its behavior to the current State object.
   */
  void Request1() {
    this->state_->Handle1();
  }
  void Request2() {
    this->state_->Handle2();
  }
};

/**
 * Concrete States implement various behaviors, associated with a state of the
 * Context.
 */

class ConcreteStateA : public State {
 public:
  void Handle1() override;

  void Handle2() override {
    std::cout << "ConcreteStateA handles request2.\n";
  }
};

class ConcreteStateB : public State {
 public:
  void Handle1() override {
    std::cout << "ConcreteStateB handles request1.\n";
  }
  void Handle2() override {
    std::cout << "ConcreteStateB handles request2.\n";
    std::cout << "ConcreteStateB wants to change the state of the context.\n";
    this->context_->TransitionTo(new ConcreteStateA);
  }
};

void ConcreteStateA::Handle1() {
  {
    std::cout << "ConcreteStateA handles request1.\n";
    std::cout << "ConcreteStateA wants to change the state of the context.\n";

    this->context_->TransitionTo(new ConcreteStateB);
  }
}

/**
 * The client code.
 */
void ClientCode() {
  Context *context = new Context(new ConcreteStateA);
  context->Request1();
  context->Request2();
  delete context;
}

int main() {
  ClientCode();
  return 0;
}

Output.txt: 执行结果

Context: Transition to 14ConcreteStateA.
ConcreteStateA handles request1.
ConcreteStateA wants to change the state of the context.
Context: Transition to 14ConcreteStateB.
ConcreteStateB handles request2.
ConcreteStateB wants to change the state of the context.
Context: Transition to 14ConcreteStateA.
  

状态在其他编程语言中的实现

Java 状态模式讲解和代码示例 C# 状态模式讲解和代码示例 PHP 状态模式讲解和代码示例 Python 状态模式讲解和代码示例 Ruby 状态模式讲解和代码示例 Swift 状态模式讲解和代码示例 TypeScript 状态模式讲解和代码示例 Go 状态模式讲解和代码示例