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生成器

生成器在 C# 中的实现

生成器是一种创建型设计模式 使你能够分步骤创建复杂对象

与其他创建型模式不同 生成器不要求产品拥有通用接口 这使得用相同的创建过程生成不同的产品成为可能

进一步了解生成器模式

在 C# 中使用模式

复杂度

流行度

使用示例 生成器模式是 C# 世界中的一个著名模式 当你需要创建一个可能有许多配置选项的对象时 该模式会特别有用

识别方法 生成器模式可以通过类来识别 它拥有一个构建方法和多个配置结果对象的方法 生成器方法通常支持方法链 例如 someBuilder->setValueA(1)->setValueB(2)->create() 

概念示例

本例说明了生成器设计模式的结构并重点回答了下面的问题

  • 它由哪些类组成
  • 这些类扮演了哪些角色
  • 模式中的各个元素会以何种方式相互关联

Program.cs: 概念示例

using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;

namespace RefactoringGuru.DesignPatterns.Builder.Conceptual
{
    // The Builder interface specifies methods for creating the different parts
    // of the Product objects.
    public interface IBuilder
    {
        void BuildPartA();
		
        void BuildPartB();
		
        void BuildPartC();
    }
    
    // The Concrete Builder classes follow the Builder interface and provide
    // specific implementations of the building steps. Your program may have
    // several variations of Builders, implemented differently.
    public class ConcreteBuilder : IBuilder
    {
        private Product _product = new Product();
        
        // A fresh builder instance should contain a blank product object, which
        // is used in further assembly.
        public ConcreteBuilder()
        {
            this.Reset();
        }
        
        public void Reset()
        {
            this._product = new Product();
        }
		
        // All production steps work with the same product instance.
        public void BuildPartA()
        {
            this._product.Add("PartA1");
        }
		
        public void BuildPartB()
        {
            this._product.Add("PartB1");
        }
		
        public void BuildPartC()
        {
            this._product.Add("PartC1");
        }
		
        // Concrete Builders are supposed to provide their own methods for
        // retrieving results. That's because various types of builders may
        // create entirely different products that don't follow the same
        // interface. Therefore, such methods cannot be declared in the base
        // Builder interface (at least in a statically typed programming
        // language).
        //
        // Usually, after returning the end result to the client, a builder
        // instance is expected to be ready to start producing another product.
        // That's why it's a usual practice to call the reset method at the end
        // of the `GetProduct` method body. However, this behavior is not
        // mandatory, and you can make your builders wait for an explicit reset
        // call from the client code before disposing of the previous result.
        public Product GetProduct()
        {
            Product result = this._product;

            this.Reset();

            return result;
        }
    }
    
    // It makes sense to use the Builder pattern only when your products are
    // quite complex and require extensive configuration.
    //
    // Unlike in other creational patterns, different concrete builders can
    // produce unrelated products. In other words, results of various builders
    // may not always follow the same interface.
    public class Product
    {
        private List<object> _parts = new List<object>();
		
        public void Add(string part)
        {
            this._parts.Add(part);
        }
		
        public string ListParts()
        {
            string str = string.Empty;

            for (int i = 0; i < this._parts.Count; i++)
            {
                str += this._parts[i] + ", ";
            }

            str = str.Remove(str.Length - 2); // removing last ",c"

            return "Product parts: " + str + "\n";
        }
    }
    
    // The Director is only responsible for executing the building steps in a
    // particular sequence. It is helpful when producing products according to a
    // specific order or configuration. Strictly speaking, the Director class is
    // optional, since the client can control builders directly.
    public class Director
    {
        private IBuilder _builder;
        
        public IBuilder Builder
        {
            set { _builder = value; } 
        }
        
        // The Director can construct several product variations using the same
        // building steps.
        public void buildMinimalViableProduct()
        {
            this._builder.BuildPartA();
        }
		
        public void buildFullFeaturedProduct()
        {
            this._builder.BuildPartA();
            this._builder.BuildPartB();
            this._builder.BuildPartC();
        }
    }

    class Program
    {
        static void Main(string[] args)
        {
            // The client code creates a builder object, passes it to the
            // director and then initiates the construction process. The end
            // result is retrieved from the builder object.
            var director = new Director();
            var builder = new ConcreteBuilder();
            director.Builder = builder;
            
            Console.WriteLine("Standard basic product:");
            director.buildMinimalViableProduct();
            Console.WriteLine(builder.GetProduct().ListParts());

            Console.WriteLine("Standard full featured product:");
            director.buildFullFeaturedProduct();
            Console.WriteLine(builder.GetProduct().ListParts());

            // Remember, the Builder pattern can be used without a Director
            // class.
            Console.WriteLine("Custom product:");
            builder.BuildPartA();
            builder.BuildPartC();
            Console.Write(builder.GetProduct().ListParts());
        }
    }
}

Output.txt: 执行结果

Standard basic product:
Product parts: PartA1

Standard full featured product:
Product parts: PartA1, PartB1, PartC1

Custom product:
Product parts: PartA1, PartC1

生成器在其他编程语言中的实现

生成器 在 Java 中的实现 生成器 在 PHP 中的实现 生成器 在 Python 中的实现 生成器 在 Ruby 中的实现 生成器 在 Swift 中的实现 生成器 在 TypeScript 中的实现