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工厂方法

工厂方法在 C# 中的实现

工厂方法是一种创建型设计模式 解决了在不指定具体类的情况下创建产品对象的问题

工厂方法定义了一个方法 且必须使用该方法代替通过直接调用构造函数来创建对象 new 操作符 的方式 子类可重写该方法来更改将被创建的对象所属类

如果你不清楚工厂 工厂方法抽象工厂模式之间的区别 请参阅工厂模式比较

在 C# 中使用模式

复杂度

流行度

使用示例 工厂方法模式在 C# 代码中得到了广泛使用 当你需要在代码中提供高层次的灵活性时 该模式会非常实用

识别方法 工厂方法可通过构建方法来识别 它会创建具体类的对象 但以抽象类型或接口的形式返回这些对象

概念示例

本例说明了工厂方法设计模式的结构并重点回答了下面的问题

  • 它由哪些类组成
  • 这些类扮演了哪些角色
  • 模式中的各个元素会以何种方式相互关联

Program.cs: 概念示例

using System;

namespace RefactoringGuru.DesignPatterns.FactoryMethod.Conceptual
{
    // The Creator class declares the factory method that is supposed to return
    // an object of a Product class. The Creator's subclasses usually provide
    // the implementation of this method.
    abstract class Creator
    {
        // Note that the Creator may also provide some default implementation of
        // the factory method.
        public abstract IProduct FactoryMethod();

        // Also note that, despite its name, the Creator's primary
        // responsibility is not creating products. Usually, it contains some
        // core business logic that relies on Product objects, returned by the
        // factory method. Subclasses can indirectly change that business logic
        // by overriding the factory method and returning a different type of
        // product from it.
        public string SomeOperation()
        {
            // Call the factory method to create a Product object.
            var product = FactoryMethod();
            // Now, use the product.
            var result = "Creator: The same creator's code has just worked with "
                + product.Operation();

            return result;
        }
    }

    // Concrete Creators override the factory method in order to change the
    // resulting product's type.
    class ConcreteCreator1 : Creator
    {
        // Note that the signature of the method still uses the abstract product
        // type, even though the concrete product is actually returned from the
        // method. This way the Creator can stay independent of concrete product
        // classes.
        public override IProduct FactoryMethod()
        {
            return new ConcreteProduct1();
        }
    }

    class ConcreteCreator2 : Creator
    {
        public override IProduct FactoryMethod()
        {
            return new ConcreteProduct2();
        }
    }

    // The Product interface declares the operations that all concrete products
    // must implement.
    public interface IProduct
    {
        string Operation();
    }

    // Concrete Products provide various implementations of the Product
    // interface.
    class ConcreteProduct1 : IProduct
    {
        public string Operation()
        {
            return "{Result of ConcreteProduct1}";
        }
    }

    class ConcreteProduct2 : IProduct
    {
        public string Operation()
        {
            return "{Result of ConcreteProduct2}";
        }
    }

    class Client
    {
        public void Main()
        {
            Console.WriteLine("App: Launched with the ConcreteCreator1.");
            ClientCode(new ConcreteCreator1());
            
            Console.WriteLine("");

            Console.WriteLine("App: Launched with the ConcreteCreator2.");
            ClientCode(new ConcreteCreator2());
        }

        // The client code works with an instance of a concrete creator, albeit
        // through its base interface. As long as the client keeps working with
        // the creator via the base interface, you can pass it any creator's
        // subclass.
        public void ClientCode(Creator creator)
        {
            // ...
            Console.WriteLine("Client: I'm not aware of the creator's class," +
                "but it still works.\n" + creator.SomeOperation());
            // ...
        }
    }

    class Program
    {
        static void Main(string[] args)
        {
            new Client().Main();
        }
    }
}

Output.txt: 执行结果

App: Launched with the ConcreteCreator1.
Client: I'm not aware of the creator's class, but it still works.
Creator: The same creator's code has just worked with {Result of ConcreteProduct1}

App: Launched with the ConcreteCreator2.
Client: I'm not aware of the creator's class, but it still works.
Creator: The same creator's code has just worked with {Result of ConcreteProduct2}

工厂方法在其他编程语言中的实现

工厂方法在 Java 中的实现 工厂方法在 PHP 中的实现 工厂方法在 Python 中的实现 工厂方法在 Ruby 中的实现 工厂方法在 Swift 中的实现 工厂方法在 TypeScript 中的实现