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生成器

生成器在 Java 中的实现

生成器是一种创建型设计模式 使你能够分步骤创建复杂对象

与其他创建型模式不同 生成器不要求产品拥有通用接口 这使得用相同的创建过程生成不同的产品成为可能

进一步了解生成器模式

在 Java 中使用模式

复杂度

流行度

使用示例 生成器模式是 Java 世界中的一个著名模式 当你需要创建一个可能有许多配置选项的对象时 该模式会特别有用

生成器在 Java 核心程序库中得到了广泛的应用

识别方法 生成器模式可以通过类来识别 它拥有一个构建方法和多个配置结果对象的方法 生成器方法通常支持方法链 例如 someBuilder->setValueA(1)->setValueB(2)->create() 

分步制造汽车

在本例中 生成器模式允许你分步骤地制造不同型号的汽车

示例还展示了生成器如何使用相同的生产过程制造不同类型的产品 汽车手册

主管控制着构造顺序 它知道制造各种汽车型号需要调用的生产步骤 它仅与汽车的通用接口进行交互 这样就能将不同类型的生成器传递给主管了

最终结果将从生成器对象中获得 因为主管不知道最终产品的类型 只有生成器对象知道自己生成的产品是什么

builders

builders/Builder.java: 通用生成器接口

package refactoring_guru.builder.example.builders;

import refactoring_guru.builder.example.cars.Type;
import refactoring_guru.builder.example.components.Engine;
import refactoring_guru.builder.example.components.GPSNavigator;
import refactoring_guru.builder.example.components.Transmission;
import refactoring_guru.builder.example.components.TripComputer;

/**
 * Builder interface defines all possible ways to configure a product.
 */
public interface Builder {
    void setType(Type type);
    void setSeats(int seats);
    void setEngine(Engine engine);
    void setTransmission(Transmission transmission);
    void setTripComputer(TripComputer tripComputer);
    void setGPSNavigator(GPSNavigator gpsNavigator);
}

builders/CarBuilder.java: 汽车生成器

package refactoring_guru.builder.example.builders;

import refactoring_guru.builder.example.cars.Car;
import refactoring_guru.builder.example.cars.Type;
import refactoring_guru.builder.example.components.Engine;
import refactoring_guru.builder.example.components.GPSNavigator;
import refactoring_guru.builder.example.components.Transmission;
import refactoring_guru.builder.example.components.TripComputer;

/**
 * Concrete builders implement steps defined in the common interface.
 */
public class CarBuilder implements Builder {
    private Type type;
    private int seats;
    private Engine engine;
    private Transmission transmission;
    private TripComputer tripComputer;
    private GPSNavigator gpsNavigator;

    @Override
    public void setType(Type type) {
        this.type = type;
    }

    @Override
    public void setSeats(int seats) {
        this.seats = seats;
    }

    @Override
    public void setEngine(Engine engine) {
        this.engine = engine;
    }

    @Override
    public void setTransmission(Transmission transmission) {
        this.transmission = transmission;
    }

    @Override
    public void setTripComputer(TripComputer tripComputer) {
        this.tripComputer = tripComputer;
    }

    @Override
    public void setGPSNavigator(GPSNavigator gpsNavigator) {
        this.gpsNavigator = gpsNavigator;
    }

    public Car getResult() {
        return new Car(type, seats, engine, transmission, tripComputer, gpsNavigator);
    }
}

builders/CarManualBuilder.java: 汽车手册生成器

package refactoring_guru.builder.example.builders;

import refactoring_guru.builder.example.cars.Manual;
import refactoring_guru.builder.example.cars.Type;
import refactoring_guru.builder.example.components.Engine;
import refactoring_guru.builder.example.components.GPSNavigator;
import refactoring_guru.builder.example.components.Transmission;
import refactoring_guru.builder.example.components.TripComputer;

/**
 * Unlike other creational patterns, Builder can construct unrelated products,
 * which don't have the common interface.
 *
 * In this case we build a user manual for a car, using the same steps as we
 * built a car. This allows to produce manuals for specific car models,
 * configured with different features.
 */
public class CarManualBuilder implements Builder{
    private Type type;
    private int seats;
    private Engine engine;
    private Transmission transmission;
    private TripComputer tripComputer;
    private GPSNavigator gpsNavigator;

    @Override
    public void setType(Type type) {
        this.type = type;
    }

    @Override
    public void setSeats(int seats) {
        this.seats = seats;
    }

    @Override
    public void setEngine(Engine engine) {
        this.engine = engine;
    }

    @Override
    public void setTransmission(Transmission transmission) {
        this.transmission = transmission;
    }

    @Override
    public void setTripComputer(TripComputer tripComputer) {
        this.tripComputer = tripComputer;
    }

    @Override
    public void setGPSNavigator(GPSNavigator gpsNavigator) {
        this.gpsNavigator = gpsNavigator;
    }

    public Manual getResult() {
        return new Manual(type, seats, engine, transmission, tripComputer, gpsNavigator);
    }
}

cars

cars/Car.java: 汽车产品

package refactoring_guru.builder.example.cars;

import refactoring_guru.builder.example.components.Engine;
import refactoring_guru.builder.example.components.GPSNavigator;
import refactoring_guru.builder.example.components.Transmission;
import refactoring_guru.builder.example.components.TripComputer;

/**
 * Car is a product class.
 */
public class Car {
    private final Type type;
    private final int seats;
    private final Engine engine;
    private final Transmission transmission;
    private final TripComputer tripComputer;
    private final GPSNavigator gpsNavigator;
    private double fuel = 0;

    public Car(Type type, int seats, Engine engine, Transmission transmission,
               TripComputer tripComputer, GPSNavigator gpsNavigator) {
        this.type = type;
        this.seats = seats;
        this.engine = engine;
        this.transmission = transmission;
        this.tripComputer = tripComputer;
        this.tripComputer.setCar(this);
        this.gpsNavigator = gpsNavigator;
    }

    public Type getType() {
        return type;
    }

    public double getFuel() {
        return fuel;
    }

    public void setFuel(double fuel) {
        this.fuel = fuel;
    }

    public int getSeats() {
        return seats;
    }

    public Engine getEngine() {
        return engine;
    }

    public Transmission getTransmission() {
        return transmission;
    }

    public TripComputer getTripComputer() {
        return tripComputer;
    }

    public GPSNavigator getGpsNavigator() {
        return gpsNavigator;
    }
}

cars/Manual.java: 手册产品

package refactoring_guru.builder.example.cars;

import refactoring_guru.builder.example.components.Engine;
import refactoring_guru.builder.example.components.GPSNavigator;
import refactoring_guru.builder.example.components.Transmission;
import refactoring_guru.builder.example.components.TripComputer;

/**
 * Car manual is another product. Note that it does not have the same ancestor
 * as a Car. They are not related.
 */
public class Manual {
    private final Type type;
    private final int seats;
    private final Engine engine;
    private final Transmission transmission;
    private final TripComputer tripComputer;
    private final GPSNavigator gpsNavigator;

    public Manual(Type type, int seats, Engine engine, Transmission transmission,
                  TripComputer tripComputer, GPSNavigator gpsNavigator) {
        this.type = type;
        this.seats = seats;
        this.engine = engine;
        this.transmission = transmission;
        this.tripComputer = tripComputer;
        this.gpsNavigator = gpsNavigator;
    }

    public String print() {
        String info = "";
        info += "Type of car: " + type + "\n";
        info += "Count of seats: " + seats + "\n";
        info += "Engine: volume - " + engine.getVolume() + "; mileage - " + engine.getMileage() + "\n";
        info += "Transmission: " + transmission + "\n";
        if (this.tripComputer != null) {
            info += "Trip Computer: Functional" + "\n";
        } else {
            info += "Trip Computer: N/A" + "\n";
        }
        if (this.gpsNavigator != null) {
            info += "GPS Navigator: Functional" + "\n";
        } else {
            info += "GPS Navigator: N/A" + "\n";
        }
        return info;
    }
}

cars/Type.java

package refactoring_guru.builder.example.cars;

public enum Type {
    CITY_CAR, SPORTS_CAR, SUV
}

components

components/Engine.java: 产品特征 1

package refactoring_guru.builder.example.components;

/**
 * Just another feature of a car.
 */
public class Engine {
    private final double volume;
    private double mileage;
    private boolean started;

    public Engine(double volume, double mileage) {
        this.volume = volume;
        this.mileage = mileage;
    }

    public void on() {
        started = true;
    }

    public void off() {
        started = false;
    }

    public boolean isStarted() {
        return started;
    }

    public void go(double mileage) {
        if (started) {
            this.mileage += mileage;
        } else {
            System.err.println("Cannot go(), you must start engine first!");
        }
    }

    public double getVolume() {
        return volume;
    }

    public double getMileage() {
        return mileage;
    }
}

components/GPSNavigator.java: 产品特征 2

package refactoring_guru.builder.example.components;

/**
 * Just another feature of a car.
 */
public class GPSNavigator {
    private String route;

    public GPSNavigator() {
        this.route = "221b, Baker Street, London  to Scotland Yard, 8-10 Broadway, London";
    }

    public GPSNavigator(String manualRoute) {
        this.route = manualRoute;
    }

    public String getRoute() {
        return route;
    }
}

components/Transmission.java: 产品特征 3

package refactoring_guru.builder.example.components;

/**
 * Just another feature of a car.
 */
public enum Transmission {
    SINGLE_SPEED, MANUAL, AUTOMATIC, SEMI_AUTOMATIC
}

components/TripComputer.java: 产品特征 4

package refactoring_guru.builder.example.components;

import refactoring_guru.builder.example.cars.Car;

/**
 * Just another feature of a car.
 */
public class TripComputer {

    private Car car;

    public void setCar(Car car) {
        this.car = car;
    }

    public void showFuelLevel() {
        System.out.println("Fuel level: " + car.getFuel());
    }

    public void showStatus() {
        if (this.car.getEngine().isStarted()) {
            System.out.println("Car is started");
        } else {
            System.out.println("Car isn't started");
        }
    }
}

director

director/Director.java: 主管控制生成器

package refactoring_guru.builder.example.director;

import refactoring_guru.builder.example.builders.Builder;
import refactoring_guru.builder.example.cars.Type;
import refactoring_guru.builder.example.components.Engine;
import refactoring_guru.builder.example.components.GPSNavigator;
import refactoring_guru.builder.example.components.Transmission;
import refactoring_guru.builder.example.components.TripComputer;

/**
 * Director defines the order of building steps. It works with a builder object
 * through common Builder interface. Therefore it may not know what product is
 * being built.
 */
public class Director {

    public void constructSportsCar(Builder builder) {
        builder.setType(Type.SPORTS_CAR);
        builder.setSeats(2);
        builder.setEngine(new Engine(3.0, 0));
        builder.setTransmission(Transmission.SEMI_AUTOMATIC);
        builder.setTripComputer(new TripComputer());
        builder.setGPSNavigator(new GPSNavigator());
    }

    public void constructCityCar(Builder builder) {
        builder.setType(Type.CITY_CAR);
        builder.setSeats(2);
        builder.setEngine(new Engine(1.2, 0));
        builder.setTransmission(Transmission.AUTOMATIC);
        builder.setTripComputer(new TripComputer());
        builder.setGPSNavigator(new GPSNavigator());
    }

    public void constructSUV(Builder builder) {
        builder.setType(Type.SUV);
        builder.setSeats(4);
        builder.setEngine(new Engine(2.5, 0));
        builder.setTransmission(Transmission.MANUAL);
        builder.setGPSNavigator(new GPSNavigator());
    }
}

Demo.java: 客户端代码

package refactoring_guru.builder.example;

import refactoring_guru.builder.example.builders.CarBuilder;
import refactoring_guru.builder.example.builders.CarManualBuilder;
import refactoring_guru.builder.example.cars.Car;
import refactoring_guru.builder.example.cars.Manual;
import refactoring_guru.builder.example.director.Director;

/**
 * Demo class. Everything comes together here.
 */
public class Demo {

    public static void main(String[] args) {
        Director director = new Director();

        // Director gets the concrete builder object from the client
        // (application code). That's because application knows better which
        // builder to use to get a specific product.
        CarBuilder builder = new CarBuilder();
        director.constructSportsCar(builder);

        // The final product is often retrieved from a builder object, since
        // Director is not aware and not dependent on concrete builders and
        // products.
        Car car = builder.getResult();
        System.out.println("Car built:\n" + car.getType());


        CarManualBuilder manualBuilder = new CarManualBuilder();

        // Director may know several building recipes.
        director.constructSportsCar(manualBuilder);
        Manual carManual = manualBuilder.getResult();
        System.out.println("\nCar manual built:\n" + carManual.print());
    }

}

OutputDemo.txt: 执行结果

Car built:
SPORTS_CAR

Car manual built:
Type of car: SPORTS_CAR
Count of seats: 2
Engine: volume - 3.0; mileage - 0.0
Transmission: SEMI_AUTOMATIC
Trip Computer: Functional
GPS Navigator: Functional

生成器在其他编程语言中的实现

生成器 在 C# 中的实现 生成器 在 PHP 中的实现 生成器 在 Python 中的实现 生成器 在 Ruby 中的实现 生成器 在 Swift 中的实现 生成器 在 TypeScript 中的实现