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命令

命令在 Python 中的实现

Command is behavioral design pattern that converts requests or simple operations into objects.

The conversion allows deferred or remote execution of commands, storing command history, etc.

进一步了解命令模式

在 Python 中使用模式

复杂度:

流行度:

使用示例: The Command pattern is pretty common in Python code. Most often it's used as an alternative for callbacks to parameterizing UI elements with actions. It's also used for queueing tasks, tracking operations history, etc.

识别方法: The Command pattern is recognizable by behavioral methods in an abstract/interface type (sender) which invokes a method in an implementation of a different abstract/interface type (receiver) which has been encapsulated by the command implementation during its creation. Command classes are usually limited to specific actions.

概念示例

本例说明了命令设计模式的结构并重点回答了下面的问题:

  • 它由哪些类组成?
  • 这些类扮演了哪些角色?
  • 模式中的各个元素会以何种方式相互关联?

main.py: 概念示例

from __future__ import annotations
from abc import ABC, abstractmethod


class Command(ABC):
    """
    The Command interface declares a method for executing a command.
    """

    @abstractmethod
    def execute(self) -> None:
        pass


class SimpleCommand(Command):
    """
    Some commands can implement simple operations on their own.
    """

    def __init__(self, payload: str) -> None:
        self._payload = payload

    def execute(self) -> None:
        print(f"SimpleCommand: See, I can do simple things like printing"
              f"({self._payload})")


class ComplexCommand(Command):
    """
    However, some commands can delegate more complex operations to other
    objects, called "receivers."
    """

    def __init__(self, receiver: Receiver, a: str, b: str) -> None:
        """
        Complex commands can accept one or several receiver objects along with
        any context data via the constructor.
        """

        self._receiver = receiver
        self._a = a
        self._b = b

    def execute(self) -> None:
        """
        Commands can delegate to any methods of a receiver.
        """

        print("ComplexCommand: Complex stuff should be done by a receiver object", end="")
        self._receiver.do_something(self._a)
        self._receiver.do_something_else(self._b)


class Receiver:
    """
    The Receiver classes contain some important business logic. They know how to
    perform all kinds of operations, associated with carrying out a request. In
    fact, any class may serve as a Receiver.
    """

    def do_something(self, a: str) -> None:
        print(f"\nReceiver: Working on ({a}.)", end="")

    def do_something_else(self, b: str) -> None:
        print(f"\nReceiver: Also working on ({b}.)", end="")


class Invoker:
    """
    The Invoker is associated with one or several commands. It sends a request
    to the command.
    """

    _on_start = None
    _on_finish = None

    """
    Initialize commands.
    """

    def set_on_start(self, command: Command):
        self._on_start = command

    def set_on_finish(self, command: Command):
        self._on_finish = command

    def do_something_important(self) -> None:
        """
        The Invoker does not depend on concrete command or receiver classes. The
        Invoker passes a request to a receiver indirectly, by executing a
        command.
        """

        print("Invoker: Does anybody want something done before I begin?")
        if isinstance(self._on_start, Command):
            self._on_start.execute()

        print("Invoker: ...doing something really important...")

        print("Invoker: Does anybody want something done after I finish?")
        if isinstance(self._on_finish, Command):
            self._on_finish.execute()


if __name__ == "__main__":
    """
    The client code can parameterize an invoker with any commands.
    """

    invoker = Invoker()
    invoker.set_on_start(SimpleCommand("Say Hi!"))
    receiver = Receiver()
    invoker.set_on_finish(ComplexCommand(
        receiver, "Send email", "Save report"))

    invoker.do_something_important()

Output.txt: 执行结果

Invoker: Does anybody want something done before I begin?
SimpleCommand: See, I can do simple things like printing (Say Hi!)
Invoker: ...doing something really important...
Invoker: Does anybody want something done after I finish?
ComplexCommand: Complex stuff should be done by a receiver object
Receiver: Working on (Send email.)
Receiver: Also working on (Save report.)

命令在其他编程语言中的实现

命令 在 Java 中的实现 命令 在 C# 中的实现 命令 在 PHP 中的实现 命令 在 Ruby 中的实现 命令 在 Swift 中的实现 命令 在 TypeScript 中的实现