本网站的中文版本尚处早期开发阶段。如果您发现其中存在错字、纰漏或其他任何问题,请随时联系向我反馈。
原型

C++ 原型模式讲解和代码示例

原型是一种创建型设计模式 使你能够复制对象 甚至是复杂对象 而又无需使代码依赖它们所属的类

所有的原型类都必须有一个通用的接口 使得即使在对象所属的具体类未知的情况下也能复制对象 原型对象可以生成自身的完整副本 因为相同类的对象可以相互访问对方的私有成员变量

在 C++ 中使用模式

复杂度

流行度

使用示例 C++ 的 Cloneable  克隆 接口就是立即可用的原型模式

识别方法 原型可以简单地通过 clone copy等方法来识别

概念示例

本例说明了原型设计模式的结构并重点回答了下面的问题

  • 它由哪些类组成
  • 这些类扮演了哪些角色
  • 模式中的各个元素会以何种方式相互关联

main.cc: 概念示例

using std::string;

// Prototype Design Pattern
//
// Intent: Lets you copy existing objects without making your code dependent on
// their classes.

enum Type {
  PROTOTYPE_1 = 0,
  PROTOTYPE_2
};

/**
 * The example class that has cloning ability. We'll see how the values of field
 * with different types will be cloned.
 */

class Prototype {
 protected:
  string prototype_name_;
  float prototype_field_;

 public:
  Prototype() {}
  Prototype(string prototype_name)
      : prototype_name_(prototype_name) {
  }
  virtual ~Prototype() {}
  virtual Prototype *Clone() const = 0;
  virtual void Method(float prototype_field) {
    this->prototype_field_ = prototype_field;
    std::cout << "Call Method from " << prototype_name_ << " with field : " << prototype_field << std::endl;
  }
};

/**
 * ConcretePrototype1 is a Sub-Class of Prototype and implement the Clone Method
 * In this example all data members of Prototype Class are in the Stack. If you
 * have pointers in your properties for ex: String* name_ ,you will need to
 * implement the Copy-Constructor to make sure you have a deep copy from the
 * clone method
 */

class ConcretePrototype1 : public Prototype {
 private:
  float concrete_prototype_field1_;

 public:
  ConcretePrototype1(string prototype_name, float concrete_prototype_field)
      : Prototype(prototype_name), concrete_prototype_field1_(concrete_prototype_field) {
  }

  /**
   * Notice that Clone method return a Pointer to a new ConcretePrototype1
   * replica. so, the client (who call the clone method) has the responsability
   * to free that memory. I you have smart pointer knowledge you may prefer to
   * use unique_pointer here.
   */
  Prototype *Clone() const override {
    return new ConcretePrototype1(*this);
  }
};

class ConcretePrototype2 : public Prototype {
 private:
  float concrete_prototype_field2_;

 public:
  ConcretePrototype2(string prototype_name, float concrete_prototype_field)
      : Prototype(prototype_name), concrete_prototype_field2_(concrete_prototype_field) {
  }
  Prototype *Clone() const override {
    return new ConcretePrototype2(*this);
  }
};

/**
 * In PrototypeFactory you have two concrete prototypes, one for each concrete
 * prototype class, so each time you want to create a bullet , you can use the
 * existing ones and clone those.
 */

class PrototypeFactory {
 private:
  std::unordered_map<Type, Prototype *, std::hash<int>> prototypes_;

 public:
  PrototypeFactory() {
    prototypes_[Type::PROTOTYPE_1] = new ConcretePrototype1("PROTOTYPE_1 ", 50.f);
    prototypes_[Type::PROTOTYPE_2] = new ConcretePrototype2("PROTOTYPE_2 ", 60.f);
  }

  /**
   * Be carefull of free all memory allocated. Again, if you have smart pointers
   * knowelege will be better to use it here.
   */

  ~PrototypeFactory() {
    delete prototypes_[Type::PROTOTYPE_1];
    delete prototypes_[Type::PROTOTYPE_2];
  }

  /**
   * Notice here that you just need to specify the type of the prototype you
   * want and the method will create from the object with this type.
   */
  Prototype *CreatePrototype(Type type) {
    return prototypes_[type]->Clone();
  }
};

void Client(PrototypeFactory &prototype_factory) {
  std::cout << "Let's create a Prototype 1\n";

  Prototype *prototype = prototype_factory.CreatePrototype(Type::PROTOTYPE_1);
  prototype->Method(90);
  delete prototype;

  std::cout << "\n";

  std::cout << "Let's create a Prototype 2 \n";

  prototype = prototype_factory.CreatePrototype(Type::PROTOTYPE_2);
  prototype->Method(10);

  delete prototype;
}

int main() {
  PrototypeFactory *prototype_factory = new PrototypeFactory();
  Client(*prototype_factory);
  delete prototype_factory;

  return 0;
}

Output.txt: 执行结果

Let's create a Prototype 1
Call Method from PROTOTYPE_1  with field : 90

Let's create a Prototype 2 
Call Method from PROTOTYPE_2  with field : 10

原型在其他编程语言中的实现

Java 原型模式讲解和代码示例 C# 原型模式讲解和代码示例 PHP 原型模式讲解和代码示例 Python 原型模式讲解和代码示例 Ruby 原型模式讲解和代码示例 Swift 原型模式讲解和代码示例 TypeScript 原型模式讲解和代码示例 Go 原型模式讲解和代码示例